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Muqarnas are made of brick, stone, stucco, or wood, and clad with tiles or plaster. The form and medium vary depending on the region they are found. Muqarnas structure in the east are built using a standard set of components and guidelines, creating a more uniformed style.
Mashrabiya is a spiritual, decorative, and functional architectural element that merges the form and function of the Islamic window screen with a conventional jalousie, taking on the materiality of local culture.It has been used since the Middle Ages and up to the 20th century. It is most commonly used on the street side of the building; however, it may also be used internally on the sahn (courtyard) side